Water

All water should be considered unsafe until purified.

Do not use:
Roadside and field drainage, water down stream from a town, industrial units, or a riverside community.

Never use:-
Sea water, De-ionized water, or urine.

Don’t try to purify water:-
If there has been a CBRN event.
It has a chemical smell or foam deposits.
It looks stagnant, thicker than usual, wiggly things in it, and mosquitoes ‘dipping’.
There are dead plants and animals in or near it.
There is loads of algae i.e. it looks green, brown, and feels ‘slimy’.

Water Processing
Best way is a rolling boil for ONE MINUTE OR THREE MINUTES IF THE ALTITUDE IS OVER 2000 METERS.
Then let it cool naturally.
This will kill bacterial, parasitic, and viral causes of diarrhoea.
Adding a pinch of salt to a liter will improve the taste.

Reverse osmosis filters guard against cysts like Crypto and Giardia.
Fine ceramic filters whose ABSOLUTE FILTER SIZE is less than  ONE MICRON can filter out Crypto and Giardia.

Bleach and Iodine will kill most bacteria and viruses BUT NOT cysts like Crypto and Giardia.

The following information is for information purposes only:-

Bleach. (5%)
Useful life is only 6 months open or not.
Use plain non scented, non thickened, household Sodium hypochlorite bleach to the following Dilution.

8 Drops per UK Gallon / 4.5 Liters of water and stand for 30 mins.
It must just smell of Chlorine at the end of that time.
If it does not, repeat the dose and leave for a further 15 minutes.
IT MUST SMELL OF CHLORINE AT THIS TIME.
If it does not, either the water is bad OR THE BLEACH HAS LOST IT’S POTENCY.
You have no choice now, start again from a different water source. Remember bleach only has a life of 6 months whether you have used it or not.
Bulk Bleaching

Iodine.
Tincture or Topical solutions of Iodine (2.4% solution)
Note:- 20 drops = 1 ml
Use To the following Dilutions
5 drops  to 1 Liter of warm clear water.
10 drops to 1 Liter of Cloudy water

Allow the water to stand for:
30 mins. if the water temperature is  25 Celsius
1 hour  if the water temperature is  15 Celsius
2 hours  if the water temperature is  5 Celsius

Add a soluble Vitamin C tablet to counter the taste AFTER the standing time.

Caution:-
Iodine is NOT recommended for pregnant women, people with thyroid problems, those with known hypersensitivity to iodine, or continuous use for more than a few weeks at a time.

Disclaimer:
I am not a qualified medic.
As this concerns the use of chemicals, you should check my data against another source before using it.

I shall not be held responsible if you don’t.
You should have checked!

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