Water

General requirements per person
p.p  per day, 1 gallon, 4.5 litres
p.p/15 days, 15 gallons, 68 litres

All water should be considered unsafe until purified.

Do not use:
Roadside and field drainage, streams or rivers down stream from a town, industrial units, or a riverside community. Uncovered water (ponds, lakes), swimming pools, uncovered wells, water butts, central heating or vehicle radiator water, water from sewers. Water collected from vegetation although water tapped from a birch tree using a spigot is generally safe.

Never use:-
Sea water, De-ionized water, or urine.

Don’t try to purify water:-
If there has been a CBRN event.
It has a chemical smell or foam deposits.
It looks stagnant, thicker than usual, wiggly things in it, and mosquitoes ‘dipping’.
There are dead plants and animals in or near it.
If there are signs of human defecation near it.
There is loads of algae i.e. it looks green, brown, and feels ‘slimy’.

Water Processing
Best way to purify is a rolling boil for ONE MINUTE OR THREE MINUTES IF THE ALTITUDE IS OVER 2000 METERS.
Then let it cool naturally.
This will kill bacterial, parasitic, and viral causes of diarrhoea.
Adding a pinch of salt to a litre will improve the taste.

Reverse osmosis filters guard against cysts like Crypto and Giardia.
Fine ceramic filters whose ABSOLUTE FILTER SIZE is less than  ONE MICRON can filter out Crypto and Giardia but not viruses.

Bleach and Iodine will kill most bacteria and viruses BUT NOT cysts like Crypto and Giardia.

The following information is for information purposes only:-

Bleach. (5%)
Useful life is only 6 months open or not.
Use plain non scented, non thickened, household Sodium hypochlorite bleach to the following Dilution.

8 Drops per UK Gallon / 4.5 Liters of water and stand for 30 mins.
It must just smell of Chlorine at the end of that time.
If it does not, repeat the dose and leave for a further 15 minutes.
IT MUST SMELL OF CHLORINE AT THIS TIME.
If it does not, either the water is bad OR THE BLEACH HAS LOST IT’S POTENCY.
You have no choice now, start again from a different water source. Remember bleach only has a life of 6 months whether you have used it or not.
Bulk Bleaching

Iodine.
Tincture or Topical solutions of Iodine (2.4% solution)
Note:- 20 drops = 1 ml
Use To the following Dilutions
5 drops  to 1 Liter of warm clear water.
10 drops to 1 Liter of Cloudy water

Allow the water to stand for:
30 mins. if the water temperature is  25 Celsius
1 hour  if the water temperature is  15 Celsius
2 hours  if the water temperature is  5 Celsius

Add a soluble Vitamin C tablet to counter the taste AFTER the standing time.

Caution:-
Iodine is NOT recommended for pregnant women, people with thyroid problems, those with known hypersensitivity to iodine, or continuous use for more than a few weeks at a time.

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6 Responses to Water

  1. yokel. says:

    I always thought the minimum was 2 litres per person?-for drinking only not including cooking, washing etc, although I have always erred on the side of caution and allowed 5 litres/1 gallon per person per day.

    • In a temperate climate (15-25 Celsius) with MINIMAL exercise the ex-spurts say it’s possible on 2 litres.

      Drop outside that temperature and you’ll need more.
      Go over that range and you’ll DEFINITELY need more.

      Especially if you are grafting, working, hiking or whatever.

      I drink about 1-1.5 litres a day. I wash me, cook three times a day, washing up every time, toilet washing hands afterwards (pee or poo), and have a ‘me’ wipe down before bed having boiled up a 750 cl thermos flask of coffee if I awake cold at night.

      4.5 litres (a gallon) is just enough for that but pushing it.

      As for food?
      Remember the tip is to drink twice as much in weight AND bulk of your food if you eat. The body needs water for digestion.

      In the boat, the 2 1/2 of us use 20 litres A DAY for “normal living”. We are also considered a bit of a novelty because we are so frugal with our water usage.

      We’ve got clean pure water covered in the boat though as we own a baby Berkfield. Hell that will cope with river water if necessary after filtering it for a couple of times to reduce the turbidity

      So can you spin your water out?
      At first yes. Only the effects of dehydration can be bad from reduced mental capacity, mood swings, lack of power, headaches, constipation, and a real danger to your kidneys.

      WATER LOSS, and by the time you’re thirsty, you’ll need about 5% of your body weight to simply make up that loss. With me (85 kg) that’s 4.25 litres. A gallon..

  2. yokel. says:

    I would find it difficult I think to drink even 2 litres in our british climate-especially in the winter, but like I said I would ALLOW 5 litres in my daily water planning.

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