General requirements per person
p.p per day, 1 gallon, 4.5 litres
p.p/15 days, 15 gallons, 68 litres
All water should be considered unsafe until purified.
Do not use:
Roadside and field drainage, streams or rivers down stream from a town, industrial units, or a riverside community. Uncovered water (ponds, lakes), swimming pools, uncovered wells, water butts, central heating or vehicle radiator water, water from sewers. Water collected from vegetation although water tapped from a birch tree using a spigot is generally safe.
Sea water, De-ionized water, or urine.
Don’t try to purify water:-
If there has been a CBRN event.
It has a chemical smell or foam deposits.
It looks stagnant, thicker than usual, wiggly things in it, and mosquitoes ‘dipping’.
There are dead plants and animals in or near it.
If there are signs of human defecation near it.
There is loads of algae i.e. it looks green, brown, and feels ‘slimy’.
Best way to purify is a rolling boil for ONE MINUTE OR THREE MINUTES IF THE ALTITUDE IS OVER 2000 METERS.
Then let it cool naturally.
This will kill bacterial, parasitic, and viral causes of diarrhoea.
Adding a pinch of salt to a litre will improve the taste.
Reverse osmosis filters guard against cysts like Crypto and Giardia.
Fine ceramic filters whose ABSOLUTE FILTER SIZE is less than ONE MICRON can filter out Crypto and Giardia but not viruses.
Bleach and Iodine will kill most bacteria and viruses BUT NOT cysts like Crypto and Giardia.
The following information is for information purposes only:-
Useful life is only 6 months open or not.
Use plain non scented, non thickened, household Sodium hypochlorite bleach to the following Dilution.
8 Drops per UK Gallon / 4.5 Liters of water and stand for 30 mins.
It must just smell of Chlorine at the end of that time.
If it does not, repeat the dose and leave for a further 15 minutes.
IT MUST SMELL OF CHLORINE AT THIS TIME.
If it does not, either the water is bad OR THE BLEACH HAS LOST IT’S POTENCY.
You have no choice now, start again from a different water source. Remember bleach only has a life of 6 months whether you have used it or not.
Tincture or Topical solutions of Iodine (2.4% solution)
Note:- 20 drops = 1 ml
Use To the following Dilutions
5 drops to 1 Liter of warm clear water.
10 drops to 1 Liter of Cloudy water
Allow the water to stand for:
30 mins. if the water temperature is 25 Celsius
1 hour if the water temperature is 15 Celsius
2 hours if the water temperature is 5 Celsius
Add a soluble Vitamin C tablet to counter the taste AFTER the standing time.
Iodine is NOT recommended for pregnant women, people with thyroid problems, those with known hypersensitivity to iodine, or continuous use for more than a few weeks at a time.